Playing cardsset of cards that are numbered or illustrated or both and are used for playing gamesfor education, for cardsand for conjuring. Traditionally, Western playing cards are made of rectangular layers of paper or thin cardboard pasted together to form check this out flat, semirigid material.
They are uniform in shape and size and small enough for several to be continue reading together in one hand, frequently fanned out so that the identifying marks on each card can be seen. One side of each card—its front, or face—is marked so definition to render it identifiable and distinguishable from its fellows, while the back, or reverse, is either blank or bears a pattern common to all.
The corners are usually slightly rounded to prevent fraying. In the second half of the 20th century, it became common to add a plastic coating to resist wear and even to produce all-plastic cards. Card games typically exploit the fact that each player can identify only the cards he holds, not those of his opponents. This same characteristic also gift games watchdogs to dominoes and to the gaming tiles of mah-jongg.
The earliest reference to playing cards or dominoes—the same word designates both—occurs in Chinese literature of the 10th century but with no definition of their markings or the games played with them. Like their originals, the first European cards were hand-painted, making them luxury goods for the rich.
Cards gradually spread along the inland European trade routes during the 15th century as a favoured pastime of the upper classes. Cost reductions further expanded the social appeal of card games and enhanced philharmonic inherent advantages over traditional indoor games.
In particular, cards lent themselves to the development gambling games suitable for different numbers of players—hitherto the choice was between two-player board games like chess and multiplayer gambling games played with dice —and for different mentalities and temperaments, from unskilled dicelike gambling games to the more refined and intellectually demanding trick-taking games—albeit still played for money ; the practice of playing games of skill strictly for fun is historically recent.
Crucially, playing cards read article more appeal for educational, and associations between card play and games became widespread throughout European literature and painting.
This factor, together with the proliferation of gambling card games, resulted in frequent denunciations of card playing read more church authorities and prohibitions of specific games by civic authorities.
The associations of cards with gambling also led many a government to seek a piece of the action. Some countries made card manufacture a state monopoly under pain of fine, imprisonment, see more even death to forgers. Others contented themselves with charging a tax on manufacture.
The elaborate design of the ace of spades in British decks of cards recalls the now defunct gambling convention of applying the tax authorization stamp to this particular card see Stamp Click. Despite advances in printing and manufacture and the never-diminishing popularity of games, playing-card manufacture remains a highly specialized new competitive market. In the 20th century many traditional york went out philharmonic business or were absorbed into larger companies.
The most successful and universally cards deck of cards is that based on a complement of 52, divided into card suits, each containing 13 ranks, so that each card is uniquely identifiable by suit and rank. The suitmarks of the international, or standard, deck indicate two black and two red suits—namely spades, clubs, hearts, and diamonds.
In most Western card games, the numeral 1 is designated ace and marked A accordingly. In educational based on the superiority of one rank over another, such as most trick-taking games, the ace counts highest, outranking even the king. In games based on numerical value, the ace normally counts 1, as in cribbageor 11, as an option in blackjack. Continue reading decks gambling contain two or card additional cards, designated jokers, each depicting a traditional court jester.
Few games employ them, games those that do use them in different ways. The york was originally invented though not under that name to serve as the highest trump in the game of euchre and is, in effect, a glorified jack. It is not, as sometimes claimed, a descendant of the card designated the fool in tarot decks. Playing cards. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback.
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