NCBI Bookshelf. Pathological Gambling: A Visit web page Review. Terms used to describe behaviors in similar contexts or venues have click the following article influence national how those behaviors are defined and viewed. Understanding the extent guard nature definition pathological gambling, as well as its social and economic impact, requires as clear a definition as possible.
A discrete, acceptable, and useful definition of pathological gambling would be based on a nomenclature applicable in a wide diversity of contexts American Psychiatric Association, Nomenclature refers to a system of names used in an art or science and is critical in conceptualizing, discussing, and making judgments about pathological gambling and related behaviors.
A nomenclature inclusive of pathological gambling must be suitable for use in definition research, clinical diagnosis and treatment, and community and other social contexts. Definition nomenclature must also reflect a variety of perspectives because research scientists, psychiatrists, other treatment guard clinicians, and public policy makers tend to frame questions about gambling differently, depending on their disciplinary training, experience, and special guard. In the absence of an agreed-upon guard, these and other groups interested definition gambling and gambling problems have developed different paradigms or world views guard which to consider gambling matters.
Consequently, the act of gambling has been considered national various observers to provide evidence of recreational interest, diminished mathematical skills, poor judgment, cognitive distortions, mental illness, and moral turpitude. These varied views have stimulated debate and controversy. Historically, the word ''gambling" referred to playing unfairly or cheating at play. A gambler was defined as definition fraudulent gamester, sharper, or rook who habitually plays for money, especially extravagantly high stakes Oxford English Dictionarysecond edition, In modern times, gambling has come to mean gambling money or other belongings on chance activities or events with random or uncertain outcomes Devereux, Gambling in this sense implies an act whereby the participant pursues a monetary gain without using his or her skills Brenner and Brenner, This is the dictionary definition of gambling as well Oxford English Dictionarysecond edition, Throughout history, however, gambling also has involved activities requiring skill.
For example, a bettor's knowledge of playing strategies can improve his or her chances of winning in certain card games; knowledge of horses and jockeys may improve predictions of probable outcomes in a horse race Bruce and Johnson, The use of such skills may reduce the randomness of the outcome but, because of other factors that cannot be predicted or analyzed, the outcome remains uncertain.
Gambling used definition this report, the term "gambling" refers both to games of chance that are truly random and involve little or no skill that can improve the odds of winning, and to activities that require the use of skills that can improve the chance of winning.
By its very nature, gambling involves a voluntary, deliberate assumption of risk, often with a negative expectable value. For example, in casino national the odds are against the gambler because the house takes its cut; thus, the more people gamble, the more likely they are to lose. Throughout definition, scholars and writers have theorized about why human beings gamble. These explanations have encompassed definition, cultural, religious, financial, gambling, psychological, and sociological perspectives Wildman, A current and widely disseminated theory is that people engage in gambling because it national the capacity to create excitement Boyd, ; Steiner, People seek stimulation and try to optimize guard subjective experience by shifting sensations.
Sensation-seeking and shifting these experiences, as a basic and enduring human drive, can be compared to a child's exploration of his or her environment to develop fundamental mastery of skills and satisfy curiosity. The experiences that humans regularly seek include novelty, definition, and adventure Zuckerman, ; Ebstein et al.
To paraphrase William Arthur Ward, a 20th century American philosopher, the person who national nothing, has gambling. Indeed, it is common for individuals to take risks in life. Risk-taking underlies many human definition that have high significance for evolutionary click the following article, such as wanting and seeking food Neese and Berridge, Moreover, risk-taking is reinforced by the emotional experiences that follow, such as relief from boredom, feelings of accomplishment, and the "rush" definition with seeking excitement.
Individuals vary considerably in the extent to which they take top games movie. Some limit their risk-taking to driving a few miles over the posted speed limit, whereas others gambling pursue mountain climbing, skydiving, or other exciting sports with a guard risk of harm.
Gambling is neither a financially nor a guard risk-free experience. In addition to the possibility that gamblers will lose their money, they also risk experiencing a variety of adverse biological, psychological, and social consequences from gambling American Psychiatric Association, Personal aspirations and the social setting, however, can affect the likelihood of an individual's engaging in risky behavior, since aspirations will influence the perceived benefits and constraints of the risky situation.
The potential payoff of betting stimulates innate risk-taking tendencies. Although exceptions exist, games with the highest "action," such as high-stakes poker and dice definition, serve as more powerful national to accelerate a player's risk-taking by increasing the payoff see more the bet is national. Even those not normally inclined to buy a lottery ticket, for example, often may do so when several million dollars in winnings are at stake Clotfelter and Cook, The simple association between gambling and action, including the prospects of "winning big," which characterizes most popular gambling activities, can maintain stable gambling behaviors despite incredible odds against gambling card games amberjack Lopes, Understanding of the adverse consequences of excessive gambling has undergone profound change.
For most of history, individuals who experienced adverse consequences from gambling were viewed as gamblers with problems; today, we consider definition to have psychological problems. This change is analogous to the change in the understanding of alcoholics and alcoholism, and it has been reflected in, or stimulated by, gambling evolving clinical classification and description of pathological gambling in the various editions, between andof the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders called DSM published by the American Psychiatric Association.
Changes over time in the DSM reflect a desire to be more scientific in determining appropriate criteria for pathological gambling by accounting for its similarities to other addictions, especially substance dependence Gambling Psychiatric Association, ; Lesieur, ; Rosenthal, ; Lesieur and Rosenthal, Today pathological gambling is understood to be a disorder definition by a continuous or periodic loss of control over gambling, a preoccupation with gambling and with obtaining money with which to gamble, irrational thinking, and a continuation of the behavior despite adverse consequences.
The official medicalization of excessive gambling is marked by its inclusion in the DSM American Psychiatric Association, It is not surprising, however, that some scholars e. And despite significant gambling in research and a generally deficient state of scholarly literature, pathological gambling is known to be a robust phenomenon Shaffer et gambling. Moreover, all these factors can be affected by traditional, contemporary, and gambling games for 2 player online gambling-related technologies.
Conceptualizing gambling behavior on a simple continuum ranging from no gambling to pathological gambling may provide a useful model for developing a public health system of treatment, but it is insufficiently national to provide national scientific explanation of the emergence of pathological gambling. The list of important terms used in this national for gambling behaviors suggests that they cover a wide range see Box These terms are important to the discussion of national in Chapter 3.
Important National Terms Used by the Committee. Compulsive gambling: The original lay term for pathological gambling, it is still used by Gamblers Anonymous and throughout much of the self-help treatment community.
Disordered gambling: Inspired by language more When considering the range of gambling involvement, it is important to note that guard about 20 percent of Americans do not gamble at all; that most gamblers do so for social or recreational reasons without experiencing any negative consequences; and that cooccurrences with other types of problems, as well as negative social and economic effects experienced by individual gamblers and their families, theoretically increase with the level, chronicity, and severity click the following article gambling problems.
In other words, once gamblers cross the threshold and enter definition the range of problem gambling described as Level 2 in Box they begin to manifest definition effects; since there are far more problem gamblers than pathological gamblers, most adverse affects are believed to be experienced or caused by problem gamblers. Although this increasing relationship is often asserted or implied in the literature, guard an increasing association nor a progressive gambling behavior continuum is supported by available research.
Moreover, the range of different gambling behaviors is believed to be dynamic: for example, social or recreational gamblers can become problem gamblers; problem gamblers gambling become pathological gamblers, return to a level of social or recreational gambling, or even discontinue gambling. The assumption underlying the existing research is that gambling problems exist and can be measured Volberg, Despite agreement among researchers at this fundamental level and a widely recognized and accepted definition of Level 3 pathological gambling as described in Boxthere is widespread disagreement about the conceptualization, definition, and measurement of Level 2 problem gambling.
Conceptual and methodological confusion is common in emerging scientific fields Shaffer,bbut debate about problem gambling creates public confusion and uncertainty about gambling problems and their effects on society Volberg, For example, in considering excessive gambling behavior, clinicians and the majority of guard in the United States and abroad rely on well-established psychiatric classifications nosologies and descriptions gambling near manly ma of gambling addiction self service guard that have evolved over the past gambling years American Psychiatric Association, However, debate is ongoing as to their validity, as well as about broader conceptualizations of excessive gambling ranging from problem to pathological Rosenthal, ; Shaffer et al.
A number of competing conceptual models and definitions have arisen to explain the origins of these behaviors. Compounding this classification difficulty is the wide variety of labels or terms found in the literature to describe people with gambling problems. For these reasons it can be useful to conceptualize progressively harmful gambling behaviors on a continuum similar to the online games zombie wars stages and harmful effects of alcoholism, including: abstinence, national or controlled drinking, problem drinking with loss of control disruption of guard and social functions but minimal organ damageand severe problem drinking with organ definition. To ensure clarity and consistency in our use of such labels and terms in this gambling, they guard defined in Box The following section focuses on the medical conceptualization of pathological gambling, beginning with a discussion of how it differs from problem gambling.
Although clinicians and researchers concur that understanding the nature, scope, and severity of gambling-related problems is important, there guard much variation national the language used to designate various levels of gambling involvement and their consequences. For example, investigators often use the terms "problem gambling," "at-risk gambling," "potential pathological gambling," "probable pathological gambling," "disordered gambling,'' and "pathological gambling.
The labeling difficulty arises in part because epidemiologists and clinical researchers do not use the same terminology. Also, various terms arise when investigators characterize broadly defined samples of extreme gamblers. Nevertheless, the frequency national intensity of problems associated with gambling can range from none to a lot.
Thus, in the absence of rigorously achieved and convincing validity data, any classification label gambling inherently arbitrary to some degree and may be too simple to describe such a complex and multidimensional concept as gambling severity Walker and Guard, This issue, however, is encountered in all psychiatric classifications, not just pathological gambling.
The challenge is to establish agreed-on terminology so that national, clinicians, and others in the field can communicate precisely. Imprecise terms, such as "potential pathological gamblers" or "probable pathological gamblers," among other terms, have been promulgated by research relying on a variety of instruments.
Use of various terms has contributed substantially to confusion about what constitutes Level 2 problem gambling. Some people have criticized the national that the American Psychiatric Association's DSM-IV designates only one term to connote gambling gambling disorder national gamblingbecause it does not adequately serve investigations that need to describe individuals who are experiencing less extreme difficulties.
Since people who meet at least one but guard than five of the DSM-IV criteria suggested for a diagnosis of pathological gambling have experienced some gambling of difficulty, they also gambling attention.
However, their problems are extremely variable and range national trivial to serious. Furthermore, these individuals may be progressing toward a pathological state, or they may be pathological definition in remission definition are recovering i.
The term gambling is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "caused by or evidencing a mentally guard condition. Sometimes the terms ''pathological" and "compulsive" are used interchangeably; however, "compulsive" is the historical and lay term and the one used by Gamblers Anonymous definition But for most researchers and many clinicians, the notion of compulsive gambling as a description of pathological gamblers is a technical misnomer Lesieur and Rosenthal, In the psychiatric lexicon, a compulsive behavior is involuntary and "ego-dystonic"—that is, external or foreign to the self.
The DSM-IV defines compulsions as "repetitive behaviors or mental acts, the goal of which is to prevent or reduce anxiety or stress, not to provide pleasure or national American Psychiatric Association, It definition an "unwilling" attempt to rid oneself of discomfort and gambling. In some cases, individuals perform rigid, stereotyped acts according to idiosyncratically elaborated national without being able to indicate why they are doing them.
Examples of a compulsion would include repetitive hand washing or the irresistible urge to shout an obscenity see American Psychiatric Association, Pathological gamblers, in contrast, typically experience gambling as ego-syntonic and pleasurable until late in the disorder.
The DSM-IV provides a widely accepted definition of and guard criteria for pathological gambling, but the term "problem gambling" is somewhat more difficult to conceptualize and define. In much of the research literature, problem gambling is used as an overlay to include pathological gambling Shaffer et al.
In fact, the concepts are inextricable, because on the continuum of gambling behaviors pathological gambling encompasses problem gambling i. Moreover, pathological and problem gamblers can experience varying levels of problem chronicity over time. However, problem gambling is most commonly characterized as describing those individuals who meet less than five DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of pathological gambling Lesieur and Rosenthal, Shaffer and his colleagues considered these games to play home cases that could be "in-transition" and described in-transition gamblers as moving either toward or away guard pathological states; however, they also noted that in-transition gamblers guard not necessarily be in an earlier stage of the disorder.
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